How can we produce a vaccine?
Most anti-viral vaccines are generally made to activate and boost human immunity to fight certain viruses by injecting inactivated or weakened pathogens into the body. There have been numerous vaccines trialed as a cure for coronavirus, and they are differently made from dissimilar virus fragments. Many labs around the world are currently improving the potential coronavirus vaccines that can be divided into four groups:
1. Virus vaccines
They involve the injection of weakened or inactivated coronavirus as a harmless pathogen into the human body to provoke immune system.
2. Viral-Vector Vaccines
Coronavirus genes will be put into other kinds of virus genes, namely measles, that are inactivated or weakened. The mix will be jabbed into the body, instead of using an original form of coronavirus, to trigger immune system to fight this modified virus fused with coronavirus genes.
3. Nucleic-acid Vaccines
They involve injecting DNA and RNA from fragments (proteins) that stimulate immunity to combat the virus invading the body. The injected RNA or DNA fragments will be multiplied and spread inside the body through blood veins to trick immune system into recognising that the body is infected by the virus. It has been proved that RNA-based vaccines are better than the DNA-based as they are less likely to accidentally fuse with human DNA. Researches also revealed that RNA-based vaccines may boost immunity more effectively.
4. Protein-based Vaccines
This method involves injecting coronavirus proteins into the body. The proteins can be collected directly from spike proteins on the virus’ surface or from a mimic protein shell of coronavirus.